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leads to an unconventional effect the loss of meaning. In the moment when the abovementioned retreat of signs occurs, this loss of meaning can also be interpreted (as Barthes called it in another essay) as an «effet de réel.»[12] This coincidental, unpredictable, and incalculable encounter reveals a multiplicity of insights there is something new to see and understand.

Acoustic space of sound and voice in cinema

However, for this interpretation, it is now important to focus intently upon the double reference in both tracks (to use technical language) of so-called audio-visual media. Whereas the doubles game between text and image remains on a visual level shared by both, the acoustic level adds another dimension. Just as the series of images allow one to experience the passage of time, the acoustic space of the soundtrack, or the voice, is added. Accordingly, questions surrounding the intertwining of space and time arise in front of the backdrop of a long history of alternating excess and subversion. Ulrich Sonnemann called the fixation upon the optical (connected with the modern period)


oculartyrannis.[13] Opposing this is a criticism of what has been called, since Derrida, logo-phonocentrism. It is a criticism of the Western metaphysical notion of the presence of the spirit in the voice, heard breathing its last. The notion is that this metaphysical truth can be most purely revealed in the openness of the vocal presence. In the cinema, this metaphysical truth undergoes a magical elevation, but also a media deconstruction as well, since the differences between what is seen and what is heard become apparent. The powerful effects connected with this are achieved in film primarily through the off-camera voice, which owes its unquestionable authority to the fact that it is outside of the visible field and thus unlocatable. In the visual field, a believable reason for the acoustic effects is threateningly absent, thanks to the presence of the off-camera voice. In French film theory, this complex of problems has been quickly connected with psychoanalytical termini, most of which come from the Lacanian school. After all, it was Lacan who added the terms gaze and voice to Freud's classic Theory of the Drives / Instincts, integrating audio und optical aspects into the libidinous scenario. With this theoretical

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