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Themesicon: navigation pathArt and Cinematographyicon: navigation pathMarker
Sans soleil (Marker, Chris), 1983

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narrative point of view are surpassed and a differentiation is made between the acoustic and visual levels, the tense relationship between image and sound (or, as Serge Daney more precisely said, between «the gaze» and «the voice,» the two incomplete objects of cinematographic desire[6]) becomes even more highly charged. The act of speech comes from a place that does not become visible.

The voice between commentary and correspondence

When referring to what is probably Marker's best-known film, «Sans soleil» (1983, F), discussions always focus on commentary. Marker himself published the scripts of his early films under the title Commentaires. Nevertheless, practically everyone who analyzes these commentaries feels obliged to point out that the voice only seldom actually comments upon what is being shown in the pictures. Yet the voice, which spans redundancy to opposition, appears to be searching for dissonance in periods, themes, and gestures.[7] Colleagues of the director report that he made fully editing decisions autonomous of the images, had the actors speak the dialog without knowing what the


images were (as in «Si j'avais quatre dromadaires» (1966, F), for instance), and was particularly fond of accidental discrepancies between image and sound (such as, for example, when the sound engineer for «Le Jolie Mai» (1963, F) accidentally allowed the twittering of swallows to mix with images of swarms of police, to Marker's great enjoyment).[8] The other key word is correspondence. Here, it is appropriate to recall the romantic notion of synesthesia, which had already attempted to eliminate, or better, integrate the contradictions between voice and gaze. However, the question that remains pertinent in every case is, of course, how much are commentary and correspondence intended? Perhaps the «conflict montage» (to use one of Eisenstein's terms) is more of an antecedent for Marker's work. Eisenstein's contrastattraction used Japanese Haiku as a model, with the aim of sharpening the «conflict between the acoustic and the optical in sound film.«[9] Musical terms such as counterpoint or leitmotif are more suitable to describe the relationship between voice and gaze, which resembles a dialog in which the mutual recognition of autonomy or at least a mutual respect is

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