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Themesicon: navigation pathArt and Cinematographyicon: navigation pathGraham

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attention to the «extra-cinematic surroundings,» since, due to the transparence of the side walls, the city landscape remains visible during the film. The situation of film spectatorship is complicated at the same time by the awareness of other viewers, since in Graham’s «Cinema» the «totalizing security of looking at looking» (Stephen Heath) [18] is broken up. Like Barthes, who strategically declared the act of «leaving the movie theater» to be its own analytic authority, Christian Metz sought to make «going into the movie theatre» the methodological starting point of an analysis of the cinema. In other words, picking up where Baudry left off, the understanding of the «cinematic situation» was expanded by integrating the psychological states before and after film viewing into the analysis. [19] Metz thus replaced the notion of the apparatus, which evidenced an a-historical and mechanical conception, with the concept of the «cinematic institution,» making reference to the inseparability of private and social experience and presuming a historical understanding of the cinema. Metz writes: «The cinematic institution is not just the cinema industry, it is also the mental machinery which spectators


'accustomed to the cinema' have internalised historically and which has adapted them to the consumption of films. (The institution is outside us and inside us, indistinctly collective and intimate, sociological and psychanalytic […] one goes to the cinema because one wants to and not because one has to force oneself, in the hope that the film will please and not that it will displease […] the institution as a whole has filmic pleasure alone as its aim.« [20] «Film perception» does not begin with the actual projection of a film, but has culturally become part of an unconscious system of perception and representation that makes itself noticeable in certain consumer expectations. He points to the fact that the cinema emerged at the same time as modern consumer culture as a whole, that is, contemporaneously with modern advertising and the shift of economic organization from the sites of production to the sites of consumption. Graham’s «Cinema» corresponds to this in that the projection screen on the street is placed at the same height as the sequence of shop windows and advertising billboards, and thus inserts itself in a seemingly smooth way into a homogenous arrangement

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